Medicinal plants were widely used in ancient medicine. Their descriptions are found in the writings of the ancient classics of Hippocrates and Aristotle, Dioscorides and Galen. The first information about the use of medicinal plants in Russia belong to the XIII—XV centuries.
So far medicinal plants have been successfully used in the treatment of many serious diseases. Drugs of them every year are becoming increasingly popular. However, the stocks of medicinal plants are declining, many of them are already listed in the Red book of the USSR. It is therefore important to protection and rational use of their natural resources. In recent years plantations have greatly expanded the cultivated medicinal plants and increased their range. Only in specialized state farms they are grown almost 50 species and about 130 species harvested in the wild. And yet pharmacies are constantly experiencing a shortage of medicinal plants.
Great help in eliminating this deficit can provide to gardeners, creating on their sites “live green pharmacy”. In addition, a skillful planting of medicinal plants, and has decorative properties, give the site unique look. Some herbs are also good bee plants,the sources of aromatic raw materials, substitutes of tea.
Grow medicinal plants not only in beds; they can be planted in the flower beds, ridges, curbs. Collecting seeds and planting material in nature. In some cities the local branches of all-Russian society of nature protection created by the section of medicinal plants whose members exchange seeds. Tree and shrub species of medicinal plants can be purchased in fruit and berry farms.
Biological features of each species requires specific soil and climatic conditions, in which are sown the particular plant in the more humid, shady clay soils or in dry, Sunny, sandy places. Growing plants such as marigold, chamomile, Aronia chokeberry, is not difficult. But ginseng, cornflowers, everlasting require special techniques of cultivation and rarely give a good crop for novice gardeners. Most of the medicinal plants propagated by seeds; peppermint — segments of rhizomes. Some plants can be propagated by seeds and rhizomes. More reliably, especially when lack of seed, growing plants seedling method. The tilling of the ordinary, taken for a given soil-climate zone.
During the growing period, the medicinal plants you need in a timely manner to hoe, to loosen, to protect from pests and diseases, fertilize organic and mineral fertilizers, watering in the morning or in the evening. After a heavy rain or irrigation the soil should be loosened. Cannot be planted for several years the same type of annual plants in one place. It promotes the development of pests and diseases. In the cultivation of medicinal plants in gardens and garden plots, it is desirable to avoid the use of herbicides and pesticides. The collection of herbs, flowers, leaves, berries carried out in fine clear weather, and only after they dry off from the dew or rain. Underground parts — roots, rhizome is collected in late autumn, after the growing season, or early spring before regrowth of the plants. Excavated roots and rhizomes harvested from the earth, scissors or shears, cut the stems, remove dead or damaged parts. Heavily soiled roots and rhizomes quickly washed in cold, preferably running, water. Grass, leaves and flowers are not washed, and sorted before drying, removing by accident, are in the collection of foreign plants and other impurities. The collected materials are dried in shade or in areas with good ventilation. Possible artificial drying in dryers, furnaces, batteries of steam heating. Raw material is spread in a thin layer on clean paper or cloth, several times daily overturn, ensure that it cannot be reached by rain and dew.
Drying is considered complete when all parts of the plant when bent broken and results in compressing the scattered. Dried raw materials packaged in paper or fabric bags. In cartons or glass jars. Store in a dry place, away from direct sunlight and pests. Shelf life of medicinal plant raw materials of various kinds different. However, gardeners better to not create carryover stocks, and use them throughout the year. We must not forget that medicinal plants can be used only on the recommendation of the attending physician.
The fourth issue of “Your yard” dedicated to medicinal plants. Gardeners will find in it information, educational and cultural nature, associated with cultivation of medicinal plants in the conditions of Central Russia. The plants on the cards are grouped according to their therapeutic application.
The author of the text A. Schroeter
1. Greek Valerian — a hardy perennial herbaceous plant of the family sinûhovyh. It is grown in lowland areas with shallow groundwater, fertile soils of light mechanical composition. Propagated by seeds. Dry seeds are sown in the autumn when the air temperature is 2-3°C or early spring, while the surface layer of soil moist enough. Sow the ordinary way with a row spacing of 30 cm, when the depth of sowing 1-2 cm In the first year of vegetation cyanosis becomes a powerful rosette of basal leaves. In the second year the plant blooms and bears fruit.
Rhizomes harvested at the end of the first or second year of vegetation. Roots are cleaned from the soil and residues of stems, cut into pieces and quickly wash in cold water. Pre-dried raw material is finally dried at a temperature of 50-60°C. shelf Life — 2 years.
Used as a sedative of the nervous system means. In addition, the cyanosis has expectorant action.
2-3. Valeriana officinalis — hardy perennial herbaceous plant of the family Valerian. Prefers moist soils. Propagated by seeds, which remain viable for one year. They are sown in early spring. Possible summer and podzimny crops. Wheat is sown with a row spacing 30 to 45 cm, with a seeding depth of 1.5 to 2 cm In the first year of life Valerian forms a basal rosette of leaves, blooms in the second year. In areas subject to harvesting, conduct vershkovyi — remove flowering shoots in the period of mass flowering. You can grow Valerian and segments of rhizomes. The rhizomes are dug in early September, and in more southern regions in October. Shelf life — 2 years. Used as a sedative of the nervous system means.
4. Motherwort is a heart — unpretentious, drought-resistant perennial herbaceous plant of the family Lamiaceae. Propagated by seeds. Germination of seeds stored for 4 to 6 years. The seeds are sown for 7-20 days before the onset of permanent frost or in early spring. Herb of motherwort collected in the flowering beginning. At harvest, cut off the tops of stems up to 30-40 cm, avoiding contact with the raw stems thicker than 5 mm. shelf Life — 3 years. Motherwort is used as a nervous system calming agent.