Folk and traditional medicine.
– one of the areas of medicine Ancient Mesopotamia, which characterizes empiricheskii nature of medical practice.
Ashipu therapy is one of the areas of medicine Ancient Mesopotamia, which is characterized by a high degree of influence of religious and mystical beliefs about the medical practice.
Mummification – drying fabrics corpse, creating the possibility of long-term preservation; the transformation of a corpse into a mummy, ie drying out without rotting.
Embalming – a method of protection of the corpse from decay, which consists in soaking his tissue substances having antiseptic properties, blocking tissue enzymes, etc.
Tarihiy – Greek name of the specialists of Ancient Egypt who practiced mummification of the dead, religious and philosophical systems of India.
The philosophy of Yin-Yang is the concept of unity and struggle of opposites, the dialectical component of the basis for the worldview of the Ancient East.
Zhen-Tszyu therapy – the ancient Chinese method of treatment acupunture. The method consists in application of special injection needle in certain points or applying to them the thorns of smoldering herbs.
Su-Jok therapy one of the methods of traditional medicine of China. It not only effective method of prevention and treatment of diseases, the recognition of which can be mastered by everyone, but the way to achieve the fundamental laws of creatures.
Diagnostics is the branch of medicine that studies the content, methods and steps of the process of recognizing diseases or particular physiological condition.
Etiology – the treatment of the causes of disease. Professional use of the term as a synonym of “Cause” in medicine.
Humoral view of disease – one of the ancient theories, according to which the basis of disease – an abnormal mixing of body fluids. Normal mixing of fluids causes health, illness occurs when the violation of the ratio of these substances.
Pneumatic idea of the disease is one of the first biological theories that have arisen on the basis of religious beliefs and natural philosophical beliefs.
TASK № 2. Describe the importance of the gods, medicine of the Ancient East
ISIS – goddess of femininity and motherhood.
He is the God of wisdom and knowledge.
Sekhmet – goddess of war and the scorching sun, fierce eye of the Sun God RA, the healer.
EA – God of wisdom, underground (fresh) water, and underground world of cultural inventions; graciously to people.
Ishtar – goddess of fertility and carnal love, war, and strife, astral deity, the personification of the planet Venus.
Gula – goddess of healing, originally death.
Marduk is a God of justice, wisdom, water element.
The Ashvins are divine twin horsemen in the “rig Veda”, the sons of Sarangi, the goddess of the clouds and wife of Surya in the form of Vivasvata. They are Vedic deities, symbolizing the sunrise and the sunset.
Rudra is the Vedic deity associated with disasters, disease, hunting, and wind or storm.
TASK № 3. Write the values of the medical texts of the Ancient East:
the Smith papyrus – This papyrus dates back to the XVI century BC Based on material deposited over thousands of years. The document covered 22 pages. It covers 48 cases of traumatic, each with a description of the physical examination, treatment, and prognosis.
papyrus Ebers – Contains an extensive list of different diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods. Among other things, the papyrus describes the treatment and preparation of medicines in trauma, combat parasites, dentistry, and gynecology and contraception. Apart from the scientific and medical recommendations in the treatise are various magic formula, due to promote the success of the treatment. In addition, in the papyrus and made astronomical observations — in particular, Hegelianism the rising of Sirius 9-th epipe in the 9th year of the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep I.
the laws of Hammurabi – Hammurabi created at the end of his reign (about 1750-ies BC), is one of the oldest legislative monuments. Preserved in the form of cuneiform inscriptions on a black diorite stele, found by a French archaeological expedition by Jacques de Morgan during excavations in 1901-1902 inshushan (the area of ancient Mesopotamia).
Ayurveda is a traditional system of Indian Vedic medicine, formed by the merger of the cultures of the Aryans and the Dravidians. “Ayur-Veda” can be translated as “knowledge of life”, “knowledge of long life” or even “science of life”. Ayurveda is considered an additional Veda (upaveda) “Atharva-Veda” and is based on the philosophical system of Sankhya.
Caraka Samhita – a treatise describing in detail the knowledge of the natural law of human existence. The authorship of the “Charaka-Samhita” is attributed to the Charak, representing the school of itinerant healers.
Sushruta-Samhita – a treatise primarily devoted to surgical treatment; it describes more than 300 transactions, over 120 surgical instruments and at least 650 drugs. In the treatise lists those medicines that are described in caraka Samhita and the Atharvaveda.
The injunctions of Manu – the most important of all ancient Indian collections of laws — Brahmanic tradition is considered the establishment of Manu, the mythical progenitor of the people. In fact, they are the work of one of the Brahmanic schools of thought. The compiling of this book took place during several centuries; consequently, it, along with a relatively late articles include the establishment of customary law, different extreme antiquity. In the extant edition of the collection compiled about the beginning of our era.”The laws of Manu” is not code of laws in the modern sense of the word, but rather a collection of pious Indian regulations in the performance of his duty — social, religious and moral, — as it was understood to be the ruling class; in it, along with customary rights are to cosmogony, polity, caste regulations, sanitary regulations etc.
“Nei-Jing” (“Canon of medicine”) – the great treatise, consisting of 18 books. Although this composition is made in the form of a dialogue, is attributed to one author, is more reliable opinion about the collective writing of the treatise, which absorbed the great ideas and the experience of doctors from different eras.
“Lin Shu” (“a Wonderful point”) – the tract that would be a choice of interaction points.